Psoriasis is a chronic, non-contagious autoimmune
disease which affects the skin and joints. It commonly causes
red scaly patches to appear on the skin. The scaly patches caused
by psoriasis, called psoriatic plaques, are areas of inflammation
and excessive skin production. Skin rapidly accumulates at these
sites and takes on a silvery-white appearance. Plaques frequently
occur on the skin of the elbows and knees, but can affect any
area including the scalp and genitals. Psoriasis is a prolonged
inflammation of skin. The causes of psoriasis are still unclear.
This condition is neither infectious (Does not spread from one
person to another) nor does it affect the general health. It affects
both the genders and may start at any age.
Psoriasis is quite common, affecting
around two per cent of the population, although people with very
mild symptoms may not be aware they have it. Psoriasis can begin
at any age but usually starts either around the age of 20 or between
50 and 60.
The disorder is a chronic recurring condition which
varies in severity from minor localized patches to complete body
coverage. Fingernails and toenails are frequently affected (psoriatic
nail dystrophy) and can be seen as an isolated finding. Psoriasis
can also cause inflammation of the joints, which is known as psoriatic
arthritis. In contrast to eczema, psoriasis is more likely to
be found on the extensor aspect of the joint.
Cause of Psoriasis
As said earlier according to modern
medical science the causes of psoriasis are unknown. But the following
factors can trigger psoriasis.
- Heredity - If one parent is affected then
there is 15% of chances for the child to suffer from psoriasis.
If both the parents are affected then the possibility of child
getting the psoriasis is 60%.
- Throat infections trigger psoriasis.
- Trauma or hurt on skin like cuts, bruises
or burns may cause psoriasis.
- Some medicines or skin irritants initiate
- Smoking and alcohol are other two factors
which activate psoriasis.
- Mental stress or psychological trauma may
also set off psoriasis.
- Due to abnormality in the mechanism in
which the skin grows and replaces itself causes psoriasis.
- Abnormality with the metabolism of amino
- Use of certain medicines.
- Due to infections.
- Heredity factors are also responsible.
- Physical and emotional stress.
- Diet- common in non-vegetarians.
- Weather- exacerbations in winters &
remissions in summers.
- Hormonal- worse at or after menopause &
remission during pregnancy.
The symptoms of psoriasis can manifest
in a variety of forms. Variants include plaque, pustular, guttate
and flexural psoriasis.
Plaque psoriasis (psoriasis
Plaque psoriasis is the most common
form of psoriasis. It affects 80 to 90% of people with psoriasis.
Plaque psoriasis typically appears as raised areas of inflamed
skin covered with silvery white scaly skin. These areas are called
Flexural psoriasis (inverse
Flexural psoriasis appears as smooth
inflamed patches of skin. It occurs in skin folds, particularly
around the genitals
(between the thigh and groin), the armpits, under an overweight
stomach (pannus), and under the breasts (inframammary fold). It is
aggravated by friction
and sweat, and is vulnerable
Guttate psoriasis is characterized
by numerous small round spots (differential diagnosis-pityriasis
rosea-oval shape lesion). These numerous spots of psoriasis appear
over large areas of the body, such as the trunk, limbs, and scalp. Guttate psoriasis
is associated with streptococcal
Pustular psoriasis appears as raised
bumps that are filled with non-infectious pus (pustules). The
skin under and surrounding the pustules is red and tender. Pustular
psoriasis can be localised, commonly to the hands and feet (palmoplantar
pustulosis), or generalised with widespread patches occurring
randomly on any part of the body.
Psoriasis of a fingernail
Nail psoriasis produces a variety
of changes in the appearance of finger and toe nails. These changes
include discolouring under the nail plate, pitting of the nails,
lines going across the nails, thickening of the skin under the
nail, and the loosening (onycholysis) and crumbling
of the nail.
Psoriatic arthritis involves joint
and connective tissue inflammation. Psoriatic arthritis
can affect any joint but is most common in the joints of the fingers
and toes. This can result in a sausage-shaped swelling of the
fingers and toes known as dactylitis.
Psoriatic arthritis can also affect the hips, knees and spine
(spondylitis). About 10-15%
of people who have psoriasis also have psoriatic arthritis.
Erythrodermic psoriasis involves the
widespread inflammation and exfoliation of the skin over most
of the body surface. It may be accompanied by severe itching,
swelling and pain. It is often the result of an exacerbation of
unstable plaque psoriasis, particularly following the abrupt withdrawal
of systemic treatment. This form of psoriasis can be fatal, as
the extreme inflammation and exfoliation disrupt the body's ability
to regulate temperature and for the skin to perform barrier functions.
Psoriasis is a chronic relapsing disease
of the skin, which may be classified into nonpustular and pustular types as follows-
- Psoriasis vulgaris (Chronic stationary psoriasis, Plaque-like
- Psoriatic erythroderma (Erythrodermic psoriasis).
- Generalized pustular psoriasis (Pustular psoriasis
of von Zumbusch).
- Pustulosis palmaris et plantaris (Persistent
palmoplantar pustulosis, Pustular psoriasis of the Barber
type, Pustular psoriasis of the extremities).
- Annular pustular psoriasis.
- Acrodermatitis continua.
- Impetigo herpetiformis.
Additional types of psoriasis
- Drug-induced psoriasis.
- Inverse psoriasis.
- Napkin psoriasis.
- Seborrheic-like psoriasis.
- Scalp, extensor surfaces of arms, forearms,
legs, trunk, joints, nails, palms and soles.
SYMPTOMS of PSORIASIS
- Red and irritated skin with bright silvery
- Itching characteristically absent.
- Start as dry, well defined erythematous
- Symmetrical distribution.
- Coin shaped (nummular psoriasis).
- Layers of silvery scales form.
- Papules increase peripherally and coalesce
- Become thicker (due to accumulation of
scales) to form plaques.
- Candle-grease sign positive: - when psoriatic
lesion is scratched, candle grease like scale is produced
even from non-scaling lesions.
- Scales looser towards periphery of patch,
firmly adherent at centre.
- Auspitz sign positive: - complete removal
of scale produces pin-point bleeding.
- Koebner phenomenon positive in acute phase:
- psoriatic lesions appear at site of scratching or trauma.
- When patches reach a diameter of 5 cm:
- central clearing occurs producing ringed lesions (annular
- Lesions heal with faint staining which
- Pits of 1 mm diameter.
- Transverse ridging of nail plate.
- Separation of distal portion of nail from
nail bed and walls.
- Subungual hyperkeratosis causing thickening
- Oil drop sign: - brownish-red areas of
discolouration adjacent to nail plate. Oil spots are 2-4 mm
- Psoriatic arthropathy.
- Exfoliative dermatitis.
- Chronic, inconstant course.
- Remissions and exacerbations.
- Disease may remain localised to original
site of affection for indefinite period, or completely disappear,
recur or spread to other parts.
- Nail lesions are resistant to treatment.
- Prognosis variable.
of psoriasis is usually based on the appearance of the skin. There
are no special blood tests or diagnostic procedures for psoriasis.
Sometimes a skin biopsy, or scraping, may be needed to
rule out other disorders and to confirm the diagnosis. Skin from
a biopsy will show clubbed Rete pegs if positive for psoriasis.
Another sign of psoriasis is that when the plaques are scraped,
one can see pinpoint bleeding from the skin below (Auspitz's
- Avoid exposure to cold.
- Moderate, warm climate is beneficial.
- Adequate exposure to sunlight.
- Avoid undue stress.
- Diet: - Avoid fats, highly seasoned
and salty dishes.
protein diet (cut down animal protein).
tea, coffee, alcohol.
- Maintain good hygiene.
- Hot bath in winter, drying and oiling.
- Avoid all factors which trigger psoriasis.
- Reduce stress levels through meditation
- Do not prick, peel or scratch skin. This
may trigger psoriasis.
- After bath or wash pat dry the skin. Do
not rub the towel vigorously on skin.
- Avoid soap. Instead use gram flour (besan
flour) as soap dries the skin.
- After washing, pat the skin dry, don't
irritate it by rubbing vigorously.
- Apply moisturizing creams liberally on
affected areas after.
- Opt for cotton clothes over synthetic ones.
- Take a well balanced diet including fruits,
vegetables, nuts, seeds, and grains.
- Apply a moisturizer to lubricate and soften
scaly patches of skin.
- Take a daily bath in warm water to soak
off the scales.
- Try deep breathing and relaxation exercise
to reduce stress.
- Do not take tea, coffee, all animal fats,
and processed foods.
- Don't scratch or rub patches of thickened
- Avoid harsh skin products and lotions that
contain alcohol. They may dry the skin and make psoriasis
- Keep your towel, clothes separate and clean.
Homeopathic Remedies & Homeopathy Treatment
KENT- SKIN- ERUPTIONS- PSORIASIS
BOERICKE- SKIN- PSORIASIS OF
KNERR- SKIN- ERUPTIONS- PSORIASIS
The appearance of the skin is dry,
rough, scaly, dirty and shrivelled. The eruptions are frequently
acuminate with excessive scaling. There is severe burning sensation
in the eruption which is worse in the evening, at night and by
cold application, it is better by warm application. Psoriasis
has a tendency to alternate with internal affections.
Great Prostration, with rapid sinking
of the vital forces; fainting. The disposition is:
a. Depression, melancholy, despairing,
b. Anxious, fearful, restless,
full of anguish.
c. Irritable, sensitive, peevish,
The greater the suffering the greater
the anguish, restlessness and fear of death. Mentally restless,
but physically too weak to move. Indicated by its periodicity
and time aggravation: after mid-night, and from 1-2 a.m. And
by its intense restlessness, mental and physical: its anxiety
The psoriasis is characterised
by marked exfoliation of skin in large scales leaving an exudating
surface beneath it. There is intense burning with itching. The
patient scratches violently till it bleeds. The psoriasis is worse
in dry cold weather, even though ars-iod is a hot patient, skin
symptoms are better by local application of heat.
The skin of hands and face is covered
with multiple psoriatic eruption. There is furfuraceous peeling
off of epidermis. The psoriatic lesions ulcerate easily, especially
from slightest injury. Here the psoriasis is worse in warm weather
and better in cold weather. There is a sensation of cobweb on
the skin. It typically affects individuals who are excessively
nervous, frightened easily and sensitive to sudden noise.
Dread of downward motion in
nearly all complaints.
The psoriasis eruptions are chiefly
located on the scalp, extremities, back. The appearance is scarlet
red with lichenification of the surrounding skin. There is severe
itching and burning which is worse in warm room, from warm bath
and better by cold application and cold bath. Due to presence
of secondary infection, the psoriatic eruptions suppurate, which
heal with the formation of thick yellow scabs. There may be a
greenish-yellow, acrid and offensive discharge.
Psoriatic eruption especially around
eyes and ears. There is presence of violent itching with tendency
to formation of thick crust. The lesions may get infected and
can form an eczematous patch which is associated with acrid, foul
smelling, pustular discharge.
Folds of the skin. e.g., ears,
buttocks, groins, bends of joints are the important site for eruption.
The eruptions are absolutely dry with little desquamation and
more cracking. The cracks bleed very easily and exude a gluey
moisture. The eruptions are typically agg. With local application
of heat. The presence of psoriasis in persons who are obese, chilly
and constipated. Psoriatic eruption alternating with digestive
Suited to - Excessive cautiousness;
timid, hesitates; unable to decide about anything. Fidgety while
sitting at work. Sad, despondent; music makes her weep; thinks
of nothing but death.
It is one of the most chilly patient
to develop psoriasis. The patient is extremely chilly that he
wants to warm himself enough even in summer. There is severe sensation
of burning in lesion accompanied by intolerable itching which
is worse undressing, night, walking, warmth. The eruption tends
to be better during monsoon season. It typically affects individuals
who are restless, nervous, anaemic and they may have a family
or past history of malignant disease.
The eruptions are present on chest
and back. The causative factor in the above case is ill-effects
of worry, loss of business, loss of reputation and embarrassment,
or illness of near or dear ones. As kali brom also has an affinity
for sexual sphere, ill effects of lascivious fancies, satyriasis
or nymphomania, could produce psoriatic eruption. The skin of
the patient, is cold and numb to feel. The patient, in general,
feels well when he is busy mentally as well as physically.
Adapted to large persons inclined
to obesity; acts better in children than in adults. Loss of sensibility,
fauces, larynx, urethra, entire body; staggering, uncertain gait;
feels as if legs were all over sidewalk. Nervous, restless; cannot
sit still, must move about or keep occupied; hands and fingers
in constant motion; fidgety hands; twitching of fingers. Fits
of uncontrollable weeping and profound melancholic delusions.
Loss of memory; forgets how to talk; absent-minded; had to be
told the word before he could speak it. Depressed, low-spirited,
The appearance of the skin is dry,
thick and indurated. The psoriatic eruptions are full of fissures
with little itching and desquamation. The eruption tries to ulcerate
early during the course of sickness. It typically affects individuals
who grow old prematurely, who are intellectually keen, and who
have ill-effects of fear, fright, anxieties, loss of vital fluids.
Patient gets a good sense of relief whenever cold applications
are applied on the lesion. However one should remember that burning
sensation of lycopodium is always better by local application
of heat. The psoriasis is associated with urinary, gastric and
For persons intellectually keen,
but physically weak; upper part of body emaciated, lower part
semi-dropsical; predisposed to lung and hepatic affections; especially
the extremes of life, children and old people. Deep-seated, progressive,
chronic diseases. Pains: aching-pressure, drawing; chiefly right-sided,
<. four to eight p.m. affects right side, or pain goes from
right to left.
The skin has a general tendency
to free perspiration, but the patient is not relieved thereby,
the skin is always moist. The skin around psoriatic eruptions
is excoriated like raw meat. The eruption are prone to early suppuration
and ulcerations. There is a sense of itching which is worse at
night in bed. Presence of psoriasis in individuals who have history
of suppressed gonorrhoea.
Nervous affections after suppressed
discharges especially in psoric patients. Glandular and scrofulous
affections of children.
The skin is dry, eroded and cracked
in every angle. Multiple psoriatic eruptions are present with
zig-zag and irregular margin. The appearance of the lesion is
like raw flesh. The cracks within the lesions ulcerate easily
and are extremely sensitive to pain and touch. There may be presence
of burrowing pus within the lesion. The skin is extremely unhealthy
and may have large jagged warts at various places. There may be
itching in the lesions which are worse on undressing. It is suitable
for individuals who have yellow discoloration, who are of spare
habits and who have a tendency to catch cold or diarrhea. Bad
effects of, maltreated syphilis and gonorrhoea.
One of the chilly remedies with
tendency to develop deep cracks, in angles, nipples, finger tips.
Psoriatic eruptions develop in winter season and get aggravated
periodically. Early formation of thick, hard, yellowish green
crust is the most characteristic symptom. The eruption itches
violently and one must scratch until they bleed. The parts become
cold after scratching. Psoriatic eruptions typically affect the
occiput and the groins. The psoriasis is associated with long
lasting and lingering gastric complaints. Psoriasis usually follows
after unusual mental strains, fright and grief. Also psoriasis
develops after skin diseases are suppressed by local applications.
Adapted to persons with light hair
and skin; irritable, quarrelsome disposition; easily offended
at trifles; vexed at everything. Ailments: from riding in a carriage,
railroad car, or in a ship. Ailments which are worse before and
during a thunderstorm. Symptoms appear and disappear rapidly.
During sleep or delirium: imagines that one leg is double; that
another person lies along side of him in same bed; that there
are two babies in the bed. Vertigo on rising; in occiput as if
intoxicated; like seasickness.
The psoriatic eruptions disappears
in summer only to occur in winter. The skin is dirty, rough, scabby
and greasy. Nape of the neck, scalp, folds of the skin and groins
are typically affected. Eruptions itch intolerably which are worse
by heat of bed. The patient scratch till it becomes raw and bleeds.
It is usually indicated when well related remedies fail to relieve
or permanently cure or when sulphur seems indicated but fails
to relieve. Psoriatic eruptions developing after maltreated infectious
diseases or long lasting grief reactions. The patient is extremely
chilly and hungry with foul carrion-like odour.
Especially adapted to the psoric
constitution. In chronic cases when well selected remedies fail
to relieve or permanently improve; when Sulphur seems indicated
but fails to act. Lack of reaction after severe acute diseases.
Appetite will not return.
The skin is dry, rough, wrinkled
and scaly. The eruptions break out on almost any part of the body
having following characteristics. There is voluptuous violent
itching which is aggravated at night, in bed, < scratching
and washing. The skin burns whenever the patient scratches. The
skin surrounding eruption is excoriated. The psoriasis usually
gets worse during spring time and in damp weather. Psoriasis develops
after any other skin disease is suppressed by local measures.
Psoriasis alternates with various other internal ailments e.g.
asthma. It typically affects individuals who are stoop shouldered,
unwashed, tall and lean, untidy with offensive body odour. It
is to be thought of in chronic and obstinate cases of psoriasis
or it should be given after an acute exacerbation of a psoriatic
attack to prevent relapse.
Adapted to persons of a scrofulous
diathesis, subject to venous congestion; especially of portal
system. Persons of nervous temperament, quick motioned, quick
tempered, plethoric, skin excessively sensitive to atmospheric
changes. For lean, stoop-shouldered persons who walk and sit
stooping like old men. Standing is the worst position for sulphur
patients; they cannot stand; every standing position is uncomfortable.
Dirty, filthy people, prone to skin affections. Aversion to being
washed; always <. after a bath.