Chronic renal failure is a slowly worsening loss
of the ability of the kidneys to remove wastes, concentrate urine,
and conserve electrolytes.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also known as chronic renal disease,
is a progressive loss of renal function over a period of months
or years. The symptoms of worsening kidney function are unspecific,
and might include feeling generally unwell and experiencing a reduced
appetite. Often, chronic kidney disease is diagnosed as a result
of screening of people known to be at risk of kidney problems, such
as those with high blood pressure or diabetes and those with a blood
relative with chronic kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease may
also be identified when it leads to one of its recognized complications,
such as cardiovascular disease, anemia or pericarditis.
Chronic kidney disease is identified by a blood test for creatinine.
Higher levels of creatinine indicate a falling glomerular filtration
rate (rate at which the kidneys filter blood) and as a result a
decreased capability of the kidneys to excrete waste products. Creatinine
levels may be normal in the early stages of CKD, and the condition
is discovered if urinalysis (testing of a urine sample) shows that
the kidney is allowing the loss of protein or red blood cells into
the urine. To fully investigate the underlying cause of kidney damage,
various forms of medical imaging, blood tests and often renal biopsy
(removing a small sample of kidney tissue) are employed to find
out if there is a reversible cause for the kidney malfunction.
Recent professional guidelines classify the severity of chronic
kidney disease in five stages, with stage 1 being the mildest and
usually causing few symptoms and stage 5 being a severe illness
with poor life expectancy if untreated. Stage 5 CKD is also called
established chronic kidney disease and is synonymous with the now
outdated terms end-stage renal disease (ESRD), chronic kidney failure
(CKF) or chronic renal failure (CRF).
Causes of Chronic renal failure
The most common causes of CKD are diabetic nephropathy, hypertension,
and glomerulonephritis. Together, these cause approximately 75%
of all adult cases. Certain geographic areas have a high incidence
of HIV nephropathy.
Historically, kidney disease has been classified according to
the part of the renal anatomy that is involved, as:
• Vascular, includes large vessel disease such as bilateral
renal artery stenosis and small vessel disease such as ischemic
nephropathy, hemolytic-uremic syndrome and vasculitis
• Glomerular, comprising a diverse group and subclassified
1. Primary Glomerular disease such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
and IgA nephritis
2. Secondary Glomerular disease such as diabetic nephropathy and
• Tubulointerstitial including polycystic kidney disease,
drug and toxin-induced chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis and
• Obstructive such as with bilateral kidney stones and diseases
of the prostate.
Symptoms of Chronic renal failure
Initial symptoms may include the following:
• Frequent hiccups
• General ill feeling
• Generalized itching (pruritus)
• Nausea, vomiting
• Unintentional weight loss.
• Swelling of face.
Later symptoms may include the following:
• Blood in the vomit or in stools
• Decreased alertness, including drowsiness,confusion, delirium,
• Decreased sensation in the hands, feet, or other areas
• Easy bruising or bleeding
• Increased or decreased urine output
• Muscle twitching or cramps
• White crystals in and on the skin (uremic frost).
Additional symptoms that may be associated with this disease:
• Abnormally dark or light skin
• Breath odor
• Excessive nighttime urination
• Excessive thirst
• High blood pressure
• Loss of appetite
• Nail abnormalities
• Pain in chest.
• Bone pains.
• Cardiac tamponade
• Changes in blood sugar metabolism
• Congestive heart failure
• Decreased functioning of white blood cells
• Decreased immune response
• Decreased libido, impotence
• Electrolyte abnormalities including hyperkalemia
• End-stage renal disease
• High blood pressure
• Increased infections
• Joint disorders
• Liver inflammation (hepatitis B or hepatitis C)
• Liver failure
• Loss of blood from the gastrointestinal tract
• Menstrual irregularities,mscarriage, infertility
• Nerve damage
• Peripheral neuropathy
• Platelet dysfunction
• Skin dryness, itching /scratching with resultant skin
• Weakening of the bones
• Uraemic coma.
• Cardiac arrhythmia.
• Fluid restriction according to urinary output.
• Maintain electrolyte balance.
• Control of B.P.
• Correction of anaemia (anaemia of renal failure does not
respond to any therapy ).
• Dialysis & kidney transplantation, if general &
medical management fails.
• Protein restriction to 0.5gm/kg body weight.
Homeopathy Treatment & Homeopathic Remedies for Chronic Kidney Disease
Homeopathy treats the person as a whole. It means that homeopathic
treatment focuses on the patient as a person, as well as his pathological
condition. The homeopathic medicines are selected after a full individualizing
examination and case-analysis, which includes the medical history
of the patient, physical and mental constitution etc. A miasmatic
tendency (predisposition/susceptibility) is also often taken into
account for the treatment of chronic conditions. The medicines given
below indicate the therapeutic affinity but this is not a complete
and definite guide to the treatment of this condition. The symptoms
listed against each medicine may not be directly related to this
disease because in homeopathy general symptoms and constitutional
indications are also taken into account for selecting a remedy.
To study any of the following remedies in more detail, please visit
our Materia Medica
section. None of these medicines should be taken without professional
Incipient stage of post scarlatinal
nephritis, pain in loins, scanty urine without blood.
Apis is not so much a remedy for
chronic Bright's disease as for the acuter forms. There are oedematous
swellings of the face and extremities, paleness, ascites, oedema
pulmonum, pains in the head, back and limbs. Albuminuria following
scarlatina. It may be of use in any form of Bright's disease when
there are dull pains in the kidneys, scanty urine and frequent Micturition.
The urine is heavily charged with albumen and contains blood corpuscles.
The oedema appears quickly, there is general dropsy and suppression
of urine and perhaps an eruption of the skin like a nettle rash.
The patient is drowsy, apathetic and has a bruised feeling all
over. Apis in such cases acts best in trituration; do not depend
on the tincture or dilutions. Hepar is recommended by Kafka in Bright's
disease following scarlatina. A valuable symptom for Apis is the
feeling of suffocation. He does not see how he is get another breath.
Palliative in dropsical conditions
where the urine is scanty. Also useful for coma & convulsions
in the nephritis of pregnency.
This remedy corresponds to all stages
of Bright's disease, bearing a closer resemblance than any other
remedy. It comes in later in the disease where there is dropsy,
pale skin, waxen appearance, watery diarrhea and great thirst.
The urine is dark, casts are abundant, and it contains much albumen.
There are attacks of dyspnoea when lying down in the evening and
after midnight, relieved by an expectoration of
mucus. It may come in immediately
after Aconite in many cases. "Blood boils" make a special
indication for this remedy. Baehr, Millard and Hale question the
usefulness of Arsenicum in kidney affections. However, it seems
a simile to the large white kidney; in fact, one could hardly wish
for a closer correspondence. Hughes considers it a favorite with
anxiety and sinking of vital forces will call for Arsenicum. Calcarea
arsenica has been used in the anaemia, progressive emaciation and
debility of this disease with success.
Morbus Brightii from gout, suppurations
or syphilis. Interstitial nephritis in its incipiency with digestive
and nervous phenomena, hypochondriasis, irritability and vertigo.
Simple albuminuria, here it seems
to occupy a place midway between Aconite and Arsenicum. Belladonna
is of the greatest service in inflammation of the kidneys with piercing
burning pains in the lumbar region, returning periodically with
This remedy pictures nephritis with
cutting pains in the lumbar region; the urine is passed in drops
and is mixed with blood, with much urging. Post scarlatinal and
post diphtheric kidney diseases with dropsy may indicate Cantharis.
Nephritis from heart disorders. It
affords relief when there is extreme rapid & irregular action
of the heart, and in general anasarca & ascites from mitral
Cuprum arsenicum is also useful in
uraemic conditions and is praised highly by Goodno. Cuprum is a
valuable remedy for uraemic eclampsia.
This remedy has an irritant action
on the kidneys. It is homoeopathic to granular degeneration. Heart
symptoms, feeble pulse, scanty, dark, turbid urine, faintness at
the stomach, rheumatic pains will indicate it. It is especially
useful when the circulation is weak. Rheumatic pains, pulmonary
catarrh with profuse expectoration are marked symptoms.
Glonoine has albuminous urine and
will sometimes be found useful in acute and haemorrhagic nephritis.
This remedy is said to be the most
homoeopathic of all remedies in Bright's disease. It has scanty,
dark, albuminous urine containing casts. It excites a violent nephritis.
This remedy corresponds to the large
white kidney. There is an albuminous, scanty and red urine; pale
waxen color of the body; there are lumbar pains, great dyspnoea
and excessive strangury. It takes the first rank among all the mercurials
for nephritis, and it comes in the later stages. Syphilitic complication
further indicate it. There is an expression of uneasiness on the
face. Dr. Ludlam considers it our best remedy for the albuminous
nephritis of pregnancy and Baehr lauds it in suppurative nephritis.
Granular degenerations of the kidneys,
with tendency to uraemic convulsion. Dropsy, sallow face, emaciation,
oedema about the ankles. It seems to corresponds to the contracted
or cirrhotic form of nephritis, holding the same relation here that
Arsenic and Mercury do in chronic nephritis. Royal emphasizes this
remedy saying that it arrested the progress in many cases and permanently
cured not few for him.
Phosphorus produces as marked a nephritis
as any drug. It is one of the most important remedies in Bright's
disease; the characteristic symptoms are: lassitude of the whole
body, hands and feet icy cold, sleepiness. The fatigue is greatest
in the morning, and there is heat in the body without thirst, especially
in the evening. The patient is indisposed to work, is giddy, forgetful
and has a heavy headache, particularly in the forehead; there is
oedema of the upper eyelids, a mist before the eye, a yellowish
fray complexion, a sickly oedema of the face, want of appetite,
pressure and burning in the stomach, and a light colored painless
diarrhea which is very weakening. It suits well fatty or waxy casts,
is dark brown, scanty and albuminous, or covered with an iridescent
film. Pulmonary complications will call for Phosphorus; and inability
to lie on the left side is a prominent symptom in these cases. Vomiting
and gastric symptoms are usually present. A small dose of Phosphorus
will act much safer and better in eclampsia than a large dose of
One of our reliable and most frequently
indicated remedies in the early stages of renal diseases when congestion
is prominent, when there is much pain in the back of a dull character
extending along the ureters. The great characteristic of dark smoky
urine will be present. There is anasarca, and of course, the urine
is bloody and albuminous. It is recommended in post scarlatinal
renal affections. The prostration is not accompanied by the restlessness