Gastritis is an inflammation,
irritation or erosion of the stomach mucosa. Gastritis is not
one disease but a group of conditions, which are characterized
by inflammation of the lining of the stomach. Gastritis can broadly
be divided into acute gastritis and chronic gastritis.
Acute gastritis is a sudden
inflammation of the lining of the stomach. Acute gastritis is
a term covering a broad Spectrum of entities which include inflammatory
changes in the gastric mucosa.
Inflammation of the whole stomach
is called PANGASTRITIS and an inflammation of
a part of stomach is called ANTRAL GASTRITIS.
Acute gastritis can divided
Causes include medications,
alcohol, eating or drinking corrosive substances, extreme physiological
stress, and infections. Acute gastritis is often associated with
a severe, acute illness, or trauma. The risk factors include nonsteroidal
anti-inflammatory drug use (NSAIDs), recent heavy alcohol use,
and physiological stress such major surgery, head trauma, renal
failure, liver failure, or respiratory failure.
Chronic gastritis is an inflammation of the lining of the stomach
that occurs gradually and persists for a prolonged time. Chronic
gastritis may be caused by prolonged irritation from the use of
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), infection with
the bacteria Helicobacter pylori, pernicious anemia (an autoimmune
disorder), degeneration of the lining of the stomach from age,
or chronic bile reflux.
What are the Causes of Gastritis?
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)
that live deep in the mucosal layer, which coats the lining of
the stomach. Although it's not entirely clear how the bacteria
are transmitted, it's likely they spread from person to person
through the oral-fecal route or are ingested in contaminated food
or water. H. pylori infection frequently occurs in childhood and
can last throughout life if untreated. It's now known to be the
primary cause of stomach ulcers and is a leading cause of gastritis.
Long-term infection with the bacteria causes a widespread inflammatory
response that leads to changes in the stomach lining. One of these
changes is atrophic gastritis, a condition in which the acid-producing
glands are slowly destroyed.
Bile reflux disease:
Bile helps in digestion of
fat. The liver secrets bile and stores it in the gall bladder.
After releasing from the gallbladder, the bile goes into the small
intestine through biliary ducts; the pyloric valve prevents bile
from flowing back into stomach from the small intestine. Dysfunction
of the valve gives rise to back flow of bile into the stomach,
leading to inflammation of the gastric mucosa.
Permicious anemia can result in atrophic gastritis. People with
pernicious anemia may have gastric polyps and get gastric cancer
and gastric carcinoid tumors twice as often than the normal population.
The immune system makes antibodies
and other proteins that fight off infection and keep the body
healthy. In some disorders, the body mistakenly targets one of
its own organs as a foreign protein or infection. It makes antibodies
against it and can severely damage or even destroy the organ.
The stomach lining also may be attacked by the immune system leading
to loss of the stomach cells. This causes acute and chronic inflammation
which can result in a condition called pernicious anemia. The
anemia occurs because the body no longer can absorb vitamin B12
due to a lack of a key stomach factor, destroyed by the chronic
inflammation. A form
of anemia that occurs when the stomach lacks a naturally occurring
substance needed to properly absorb and digest vitamin B12. A
lack of vitamin B12 may change the surface of the tongue and shrink
or thin the stomach lining.
Regular use of pain
drugs (NSAIDs) reduce prostaglandin which preserves the stomach
mucosa thereby cause inflammation of stomach lining.
Severe stress due to major
surgery, traumatic injury, burns or severe infections can cause
gastritis as well as ulcers and stomach bleeding.
It can irritate and erode the
Cocaine damages the stomach
lining and may lead to hemorrhage.
Radiation and chemotherapy:
Chemotherapy and radiation
given for cancer can cause irreversible erosions of the stomach
lining and destruction of acid-producing glands.
Gastritis may be associated
with other medical conditions, including HIV/AIDS, parasitic infections,
some connective tissue disorders, and liver or kidney failure.
are the Signs and Symptoms of Gastritis?
The signs and symptoms of gastritis
gnawing or burning ache or pain in the upper abdomen that may
become either worse or better after eating.
- Bloating: A
feeling of fullness in upper abdomen after eating
- Belching: Belching either
does not relieve the pain or relieves it only briefly.
- Nausea and vomiting: The vomit may be clear,
green or yellow, blood-streaked, or completely bloody, depending
on the severity of the stomach inflammation.
In more severe
gastritis, bleeding may occur inside the stomach. Any of the following
symptoms can be seen as well as those already mentioned.
- Pallor, sweating, and rapid
(or "racing") heart beat.
- Feeling faint or short of
- Chest pain or severe stomach
- Vomiting large amounts of
- Bloody bowel movements or
dark, sticky, very foul-smelling bowel movements
Gastritis is Diagnosed?
Gastritis is diagnosed on the
basis of medical history and physical examinations of the patient
and the following tests:
test to detect presence of H. pylori antibodies. A positive test
shows that you've come in contact with the bacteria at some time
in your life, but it doesn't necessarily indicate current infection.
Blood tests can also check for anemia, which may result from stomach
bleeding associated with gastritis.
tests. To check
H. pylori presence in a sample of stool. A positive result shows
current infection. Test for the presence of blood in stool, a
sign of gastric bleeding.
After swallowing barium liquid which coats the lining of digestive
tract, it is easier to check signs of gastritis and other digestive
gastrointestinal endoscopy. On
if gastritis is still doubtful
then we will go for endoscopy. This procedure allows seeing abnormalities
in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract that may not be visible
on X-rays. If any tissue in your upper intestinal tract looks
suspicious, your doctor can remove a small sample (biopsy) using
instruments inserted through the endoscope. The sample is then
sent to a lab for examination by a pathologist. Risks of the procedure
are rare and include bleeding and perforation of the stomach lining.
The most common complication is a slight sore throat from swallowing
is the Treatment of Gastritis?
Treatment depends upon the
cause of gastritis. It may include lifestyle changes, medication
or rarely surgery. Medication includes, Antacids, H2 blockers,
Proton pump inhibitor, Antibiotics, antidiarrheal agents etc.
In some patients the side effects of these drugs may seen:
containing Aluminum and Magnesium are given but contraindicated
in documented hypersensitivity, it can’t be safely used in pregnancy
as it decreases effect of allopurinol, amprenavir, chloroquine,
corticosteroids, diflunisal, digoxin, ethambutol, iron salt, H2
antagonists, isoniazid, penicillamine, phenothiazines, tetracycline,
thyroid hormones & ticlopidine; increases effect of benzodiazepines
& amphetamine; may cause Aluminum toxicity with ascorbic acid.
antacids may cause diarrhea and may lead to dehydration.
history of gastrointestinal bleeding can not take Aluminum and
Magnesium containing antacids.
is commonly given to the patient, it may lead to confusional states;
may cause impotence and gynaecomastia in young males.
[Prilosec] drug given to patients may increase toxicity of warfarin,
digoxin and phenytoin.
Trimox], is contraindicated in hepatic dysfunction. It reduces
efficacy of oral contraceptives. Tetracycline used during teeth
development can cause permanent discoloration of teeth.
Agents: They are
used along with antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors/H2 Receptor
Antagonists to eradicate H.Pylori. Administration along with anticoagulants
may increase risk of bleeding. It may cause darkening of tongue
and black stool which is temporary.
Homeopathic Treatment of Gastritis
[Kent] Stomach, Inflammation
[Murphy] Stomach, Gastritis
[Boericke] Stomach, Inflammation
Inflamed, Acute gastritis
Nux Vomica, Lycopodium,
Phosphorus, Arsenic album, Veratrum album, Bryonia alba, Belladonna, Graphites,
Carbo vegetabilis, Argenticum Nitricum, Mercurious, Kali bichromicum,
China officinalis, Sulphur, Kali carbonicum, Pulsatilla,
Heartburn with flatulence.
Nausea and vomiting in the morning. He feels “If I could only
vomit I would be so much better”. Alternating constipation and
diarrhea. Eructations sour, bitter; nausea and vomiting every
morning with depression of spirits, after eating. Heartburn. Drinking
milk seems to cause acidity. Hunger, but if he eats ever so little,
he is satisfied and feels quite full. Repeated, violent vomiting
of sour mucus with headache or with blood. Nux vomica is mostly
indicated in case of chronic gastritis which is caused by tobacco,
alcoholic stimulants, aromatic or patent medicines, sedentary
habits, highly spiced food. Contractive, squeezing stomachache.
It has pain in the pit of stomach
when the hypochondria are pressed and pain in hypochondria when
the pit of stomach is pressed. There is fullness even after a
light meal, with no intestinal irritation. Offensive discharges.
Eructation ameliorates gastric troubles. Bitter taste in mouth
at night, sour vomiting. A grand characteristic of Lycopodium
is, “The patient goes to meals with a vigorous appetite, but after
eating a small quantity of food he feels so full and bloated that
he has to force himself to swallow another mouthful; and he leaves
the table with his hunger, only momentarily satisfied.”
Gastritis with chronic erosion.
Burning, gnawing circumscribed pain. The all gone, weak feeling
at 11 a.m.
starting from stomach to bowel. Craves for cold food and cold
drinks which give relief temporarily, but are vomited as soon
as they become warm in stomach. Very useful remedy in the vomiting
of chronic dyspepsia.
Foul, bitter or sour taste.
Burning pain in stomach like fire, as if hot coals were
applied to part, better by hot application, hot drinks. Acrid
and bitter eructation. Irritative dyspepsia and acute inflammation.
Nausea, retching and vomiting of slimy mucus tingled with blood.
Trembling and coldness of extremities with pain in stomach and
Hiccups after hot drinks. Forcible
eructations, mostly of air. After eating, empty eructation
of air. After frequent eructation, copious ejection of mucus.
Constant sick eructation with very violent cough. Voracious
hunger, great thirst. Vomiting is -
: Slimy acid
liquids with food froth.
green or white mucus.
: With black
bile and blood.
Colicky pain with salivation,
profuse cold perspiration.
Is best adapted to persons
of gouty or rheumatic diathesis. Great thirst for large quantities
at long intervals. Pressure as from stone at pit of the stomach,
relieved by eructation. Stool large, hard, dark, and dry, as if
burnt. Diarrhea during a spell of hot weather; bilious, acrid
with soreness of anus; like dirty water; of undigested food; from
cold drinks when overheated, from fruit or sour foods aggravated
in morning, on moving, even a hand or foot and ameliorated by
absolute rest. Aggravation from any motion, and corresponding
relief from absolute rest, either mental or physical. Pains: stitching,
tearing, worse at night;
Abdominal pain in short attacks,
causes redness of face and eyes. Abdomen tender, distended;
aggravated by least jar. Loss of appetite with desire to drink
without thirst. Eructation and vertigo. Nausea and inclination
to vomit. Violent stomachache after a meal. Bilious vomiting.
Distention of stomach and bowel,
obliged to loosen clothing. Gastralgia. burning, crampy,
colicky pain in the stomach, ameliorated after eating. Cramps
in the epigastrium and putrid eructation. Sweets nauseate and
disgust, hot drinks disagree. Aversion to meat. Flatus rancid
Violent burning in the stomach,
with paroxysmal cramps which force the patient to double up; with
flatulence. Putrid variety of dyspepsia. Slow digestion; feels
as if a weight in the stomach, which is not relieved by eating;
but after a few mouthfuls there is a sense of fullnesss. Eructations
are rancid, putrid or sour.
Violent belching and great
relief from it. Pain is gnawing, ulcerative, referred to the pit
of stomach. Vomiting of glairy mucus, which can be drawn into
strings. Longing for sugar which aggravates the complaints. Pain
in spot radiates to every direction.
It has deathly faintness at
the pit of stomach. Profuse saliva in the mouth. Stool
hot, scanty, bloody, slimy, and offensive, with terrible cutting,
colicky pains. Useful in painful acute inflammation. Tenesmus,
not relieved by stool. A never get done feeling in the rectum.
Gastric complaints from bad
effects of beer. Loss of appetite. Weight in pit of stomach. Flatulence
aggravated soon after eating. Vomiting of ropy mucus and blood;
round ulcer in the stomach. Can not digest meat.
It is best suited to weak patients
having low vital power. Sensation of satiety after a few
mouthfuls of food. Sour, bitter eructations; flatus is offensive.
Slow digestion and patient faints easily. There is a sensation
as if food had lodged in the oesophagus. In cases where the food
does not digest, but lies a long time in the stomach, causing
eructations and finally is vomited out undigested.
the stomach. Gastritis caused by chronic alcoholism. When carefully
selected remedies fail to produce favorable effects, especially
in acute diseases, it frequently serves to rouse the reactive
powers of the system. Weak, empty, gone or faint feeling in the
stomach about 11.a.m. and can not wait for lunch. Congestion of
abdomen. Stool acrid excoriating. It follows Aconite well. Sour
eructation all the day. Long heartburn. Belching up of a portion
of the food that had been eaten. In the morning inclination to
vomit. Morning nausea. Bulked eructation on going to sleep.
Kali carbonicum: -
It is indicated where the system
is broken by long term bacterial infection, pernicious anemia,
hazards of radiation and chemotherapy. Putrid belching, dyspepsia
with sleepiness. Before eating, there is a faint sinking feeling
in the epigastrium out of proportion to the feeling of vacuity
caused by hunger, with sour eructation, heartburn and with peculiar
weak nervous sensation. Desire for sugar and sweet.
Adapted to persons of indecisive,
slow, phlegmatic temperament; sandy hair, blue eyes, pale face,
easily moved to laughter or tears. All gone sensation in the stomach.
Great dryness of mouth. Diminished taste of all food. In the morning
sour eructation, in the evening bilious eructation, in the night
bitter eructation. Intolerable nausea; short and bilious vomiting.
Inclination to vomit with grumbling and rumbling in the sub costal
region. Flatulent colic. Stool mingled with little blood. Pinching
pain in epigastrium. Thirstlessness with nearly all complaints.
Gastric difficulties from eating rich food, cake, pastry, especially
after pork or sausage; the sight or even the thought of pork causes
disgust; "bad taste" in the morning.
Aconite is indicated in acute
gastritis condition. Empty eructation, ineffectual effort to eructate.
Nausea and vomiting with profuse perspiration, swollen, distended
abdomen. Complaints are with mental anxiety accompanied with
restlessness. Pains are intolerable, they drive him crazy.
Some Diet & Lifestyle Tips for Gastritis:
If you experience frequent indigestion, eat smaller, more frequent
meals to buffer stomach acid secretion. Avoid any spicy, acidic,
fried or fatty food. Practice good eating habits.
irritates and erodes the mucous lining of the stomach, causing
inflammation and bleeding.
interferes with the protective lining of the stomach, making the
stomach more susceptible to gastritis as well as ulcers. Smoking
also increases stomach acid; delays stomach healing and are a
leading risk factor for stomach cancer. Still, quitting isn't
easy, especially if you've smoked for years. Talk to your doctor
about methods that may help you stop smoking.
Some may cause stomach inflammation or make existing irritation
Your doctor may recommend that you take an over-the-counter antacid
or acid blocker to help prevent recurring gastritis.
a healthy weight.
Heartburn, bloating and constipation tend to be more common in
obese people. Maintaining a healthy weight can often help prevent
or reduce these symptoms.
exercise that increases your breathing and heart rate also stimulates
the activities of intestinal muscles, helping to move food wastes
through your intestines more quickly.
increases risk of heart attack and stroke, increases stomach acid
production and slows digestion. For relaxation practice yoga.
Make a habit of regular exercise, morning walk, eat healthy, nutritious
food, it boosts your immune system & makes you calm.