Polycystic kidney disease (PKD or PCKD, also known
as polycystic kidney syndrome) is a cystic genetic disorder of the
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a genetic disorder characterized
by the growth of numerous cysts in the kidneys. The kidneys are
two organs, each about the size of a fist, located in the upper
part of a person’s abdomen, toward the back. The kidneys filter
wastes and extra fluid from the blood to form urine. They also regulate
amounts of certain vital substances in the body. When cysts form
in the kidneys, they are filled with fluid. Polycystic kidney disease
cysts can profoundly enlarge the kidneys while replacing much of
the normal structure, resulting in reduced kidney function and leading
to kidney failure.
When Polycystic kidney disease causes kidneys to fail—which
usually happens after many years—the patient requires dialysis
or kidney transplantation. About one-half of people with the most
common type of Polycystic kidney disease progress to kidney failure,
also called end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
Polycystic kidney disease can also cause cysts in the liver and
problems in other organs, such as blood vessels in the brain and
heart. The number of cysts as well as the complications they cause
help doctors distinguish Polycystic kidney disease from the usually
harmless “simple” cysts that often form in the kidneys
in later years of life.
- Genetic disorder.
- Inheritance: autosomal dominant.
- Autosomal dominant Polycystic kidney disease is the most common, inherited form. Symptoms usually develop
between the ages of 30 and 40, but they can begin earlier, even
in childhood. About 90 percent of all PKD cases are autosomal
dominant Polycystic kidney disease.
- Autosomal recessive Polycystic kidney disease is a rare, inherited form. Symptoms of autosomal recessive Polycystic
kidney disease begin in the earliest months of life, even in the
- Acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD) develops in association with long-term kidney problems, especially
in patients who have kidney failure and who have been on dialysis
for a long time. Therefore, it tends to occur in later years of
life. It is not an inherited form of Polycystic kidney disease.
SYMPTOMS of Polycystic kidney disease
- Dull aching in loins.
- Vague abdominal pain.
- Frequent urination.
- Anaemia: moderate to severe.
- Blood pressure: raised.
- On palpation abdomen
- Enlarged irregular kidneys.
- Large knobby renal masses.
- Enlarged polycystic liver (50% cases).
- Recurrent urinary tract infection.
- Renal calculi.
- Chronic renal failure.
- Control of blood pressure.
- Plenty of fluids.
- Low protein diet.
- Correction of anaemia (due to haematuria).
- Prevention & prompt treatment of infection.
Homeopathy Treatment & Homeopathic Remedies for Polycystic Kidney Disease
Homeopathy treats the person as a whole. It means that homeopathic
treatment focuses on the patient as a person, as well as his pathological
condition. The homeopathic medicines are selected after a full individualizing
examination and case-analysis, which includes the medical history
of the patient, physical and mental constitution etc. A miasmatic
tendency (predisposition/susceptibility) is also often taken into
account for the treatment of chronic conditions. The medicines given
below indicate the therapeutic affinity but this is not a complete
and definite guide to the treatment of this condition. The symptoms
listed against each medicine may not be directly related to this
disease because in homeopathy general symptoms and constitutional
indications are also taken into account for selecting a remedy.
To study any of the following remedies in more detail, please visit
our Materia Medica
section. None of these medicines should be taken without professional
Incipient stage of post scarlatinal nephritis, pain
in loins, scanty urine without blood.
Apis is not so much a remedy for chronic Bright's
disease as for the acuter forms. There are oedematous swellings
of the face and extremities, paleness, ascites, oedema pulmonum,
pains in the head, back and limbs. Albuminuria following scarlatina.
It may be of use in any form of Bright's disease when there are
dull pains in the kidneys, scanty urine and frequent Micturition.
The urine is heavily charged with albumen and contains blood corpuscles.
The oedema appears quickly, there is general dropsy and suppression
of urine and perhaps an eruption of the skin like a nettle rash.
The patient is drowsy, apathetic and has a bruised feeling all
over. Apis in such cases acts best in trituration; do not depend
on the tincture or dilutions. Hepar is recommended by Kafka in Bright's
disease following scarlatina. A valuable symptom for Apis is the
feeling of suffocation. He does not see how he is get another breath.
Palliative in dropsical conditions where the urine
is scanty. Also useful for coma & convulsions in the nephritis
This remedy corresponds to all stages of Bright's
disease, bearing a closer resemblance than any other remedy. It
comes in later in the disease where there is dropsy, pale skin,
waxen appearance, watery diarrhea and great thirst. The urine is
dark, casts are abundant, and it contains much albumen. There are
attacks of dyspnoea when lying down in the evening and after midnight,
relieved by an expectoration of
mucus. It may come in immediately after Aconite in
many cases. "Blood boils" make a special indication for
this remedy. Baehr, Millard and Hale question the usefulness of
Arsenicum in kidney affections. However, it seems a simile to the
large white kidney; in fact, one could hardly wish for a closer
correspondence. Hughes considers it a favorite with anxiety and
sinking of vital forces will call for Arsenicum. Calcarea arsenica
has been used in the anaemia, progressive emaciation and debility
of this disease with success.
Morbus Brightii from gout, suppurations or syphilis.
Interstitial nephritis in its incipiency with digestive and nervous
phenomena, hypochondriasis, irritability and vertigo.
Simple albuminuria, here it seems to occupy a place
midway between Aconite and Arsenicum. Belladonna is of the greatest
service in inflammation of the kidneys with piercing burning pains
in the lumbar region, returning periodically with increased severity.
This remedy pictures nephritis with cutting pains
in the lumbar region; the urine is passed in drops and is mixed
with blood, with much urging. Post scarlatinal and post diphtheric
kidney diseases with dropsy may indicate Cantharis.
Nephritis from heart disorders. It affords relief
when there is extreme rapid & irregular action of the heart,
and in general anasarca & ascites from mitral insufficiency.
Cuprum arsenicum is also useful in uraemic conditions
and is praised highly by Goodno. Cuprum is a valuable remedy for
This remedy has an irritant action on the kidneys.
It is homoeopathic to granular degeneration. Heart symptoms, feeble
pulse, scanty, dark, turbid urine, faintness at the stomach, rheumatic
pains will indicate it. It is especially useful when the circulation
is weak. Rheumatic pains, pulmonary catarrh with profuse expectoration
are marked symptoms.
Glonoine has albuminous urine and will sometimes
be found useful in acute and haemorrhagic nephritis.
This remedy is said to be the most homoeopathic of
all remedies in Bright's disease. It has scanty, dark, albuminous
urine containing casts. It excites a violent nephritis.
This remedy corresponds to the large white kidney.
There is an albuminous, scanty and red urine; pale waxen color of
the body; there are lumbar pains, great dyspnoea and excessive strangury.
It takes the first rank among all the mercurials for nephritis,
and it comes in the later stages. Syphilitic complication further
indicate it. There is an expression of uneasiness on the face. Dr.
Ludlam considers it our best remedy for the albuminous nephritis
of pregnancy and Baehr lauds it in suppurative nephritis.
Granular degenerations of the kidneys, with tendency
to uraemic convulsion. Dropsy, sallow face, emaciation, oedema about
the ankles. It seems to corresponds to the contracted or cirrhotic
form of nephritis, holding the same relation here that Arsenic and
Mercury do in chronic nephritis. Royal emphasizes this remedy saying
that it arrested the progress in many cases and permanently cured
not few for him.
Phosphorus produces as marked a nephritis as any
drug. It is one of the most important remedies in Bright's disease;
the characteristic symptoms are: lassitude of the whole body, hands
and feet icy cold, sleepiness. The fatigue is greatest in the morning,
and there is heat in the body without thirst, especially in the
evening. The patient is indisposed to work, is giddy, forgetful
and has a heavy headache, particularly in the forehead; there is
oedema of the upper eyelids, a mist before the eye, a yellowish
fray complexion, a sickly oedema of the face, want of appetite,
pressure and burning in the stomach, and a light colored painless
diarrhea which is very weakening. It suits well fatty or waxy casts,
is dark brown, scanty and albuminous, or covered with an iridescent
film. Pulmonary complications will call for Phosphorus; and inability
to lie on the left side is a prominent symptom in these cases. Vomiting
and gastric symptoms are usually present. A small dose of Phosphorus
will act much safer and better in eclampsia than a large dose of
One of our reliable and most frequently indicated
remedies in the early stages of renal diseases when congestion is
prominent, when there is much pain in the back of a dull character
extending along the ureters. The great characteristic of dark smoky
urine will be present. There is anasarca, and of course, the urine
is bloody and albuminous. It is recommended in post scarlatinal
renal affections. The prostration is not accompanied by the restlessness